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Appendix 7-D:
Causes

From Chapter 7: Strengthening Regional Security through G7/8 Sanctions and Force, by John Kirton and Julia Kulik
In Accountability for Effectiveness in Global Governance
edited by John Kirton and Marina Larionova
available from Routledge, 2018

Case Threat Capability Proximity Colony United Nations NATO Iteration Foreign ministerial
Force
Iraq 1991 Low 2,410 1,835 (Italy) United Kingdom Yes
(UNSCR 678)
No 0 0
Kosovo 1999 Low 469 448
(Italy)
No No
(Post UNSCR 1244)
Yes
2 6 months
Afghanistan 2002 High 6,398 2,096 (Russia) No Yes
(UNSCR 1510)
Yes
0 11 months
Libya 2011 Low 898 624
(Italy)

Italy
Yes
(UNSCR 1973)
Yes
4 11 months
Mali 2013 Low 3,633 2,368
France
Yes
(UNSCR 2085)
Yes
2 3 months
ISIS 2015 Low N/A 1,835 (Italy) United Kingdom, France No No 1 7 months
Average 83%
Low
2,761 1,534 66% 67%
Yes
66%
Yes
66%
Yes
6 months
Sanctions only
Iran 1980 Medium 80 2,124 (Italy) Yes
(United Kingdom)
No
(061223)
No 0 0
Afghanistan 1980 Low 7 1,298 (Germany) No No Yes 1 0
Sudan 2004 Low 1,229 2,178 (Italy) Yes
(United Kingdom)
Yes
(UNSCR 1591)
No 3 3 months
North Korea 2006 Medium 2,162 799 (Japan) No Yes
(UNSCR 1718)
No 0 10 months
Syria 2011 Low 537 1,420 (Italy) Yes
(France)
No Yes 4 11 months
Ukraine 2014 Low 12 755 (Berlin) No No No 2 3 months
Average 66%
Low
671 1,429 50% 33%
Yes
  66%
Yes
4 months

Notes: NATO = North Atlantic Treaty Organization; UNSCR = United Nations Security Council resolution.


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