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Appendix 1-C:
Scale of Compliance-Creating Enforcement Measures

From Chapter 1: Accountability and Effectiveness in Global Governance, by John Kirton and Marina Larionova
In Accountability for Effectiveness in Global Governance
edited by John Kirton and Marina Larionova
available from Routledge, 2018

  1. Verbal/Analytic
    1. Peer pressure, naming and shaming, communiqué admonitions, public compliance assessments, publication of poor performance (compliance reports)
    2. Peer protection, communiqué compliments, private compliance assessment
  2. Diplomatic recognition/Representation
    1. Cut ties, close embassy, recall ambassador
    2. Open/expand/upgrade posts
  3. Suspension from international institutions
    1. Suspension, expulsion, degree, duration, (readmittance) Russia G7 2014
    2. Socialization/inclusions, e.g., Russia 1989–1998
  4. Sanctions: Economic, transportation, sports, social, material
    1. Punitions
    2. Reward, e.g., official development assistance, debt relief
  5. Force, military, material coercive
    1. Punitive
    2. Reward: military training (Ukraine), assistance, alliance formed

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